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Shot Hole Borer National Distribution Forecast

Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer (PHSB) Four-Year Forecast of Urban Tree Infestation in South Africa

This paper uses current actual distribution of Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer (PHSB) within South Africa to provide a four-year forecast of how this invasive pest will spread in the urban environment.

PSHB Forecast Distribution Map SA - 2019
PSHB Forecast Distribution Map SA – 2019

 

PSHB Forecast Distribution Map SA - 2020
PSHB Forecast Distribution Map SA – 2020

 

PSHB Forecast Distribution Map SA - 2021
PSHB Forecast Distribution Map SA – 2021

 

PSHB Forecast Distribution Map SA - 2022
PSHB Forecast Distribution Map SA – 2022

 

Download the full PDF report here:


Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer (PSHB) National Distribution Maps

Shot Hole Borer has now been formally verified in Cape Town – read more here

2019-04-11 TreeSurvey.co.za Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer (PSHB) Distribution Map - South Africa
2019-04-11 TreeSurvey.co.za Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer (PSHB) Distribution Map – South Africa

Johannesburg has suffered a massive attack – the high tree mortality is threatening one of the worlds largest urbans forests.

2019-04-11 TreeSurvey.co.za Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer (PSHB) Distribution Map - Johannesburg
2019-04-11 TreeSurvey.co.za Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer (PSHB) Distribution Map – Johannesburg

View all the Tree Survey PSHB GIS maps here.

Shot Hole Borer (PSHB) Workshops

Shot Hole Borer is killing our trees, learn how to control it and treat infested trees. This workshop covers the following topics:

PSHB – Habitat and life cycle
PSHB – Control and treatment
South African Law and Act 36

View the Cape Town PSHB Workshop agenda and programme here

We have hosted 5 workshops around the country, and will schedule more if there is an expression of interest:


 

Tree Survey Competition – Report two trees and win

Tree Survey has partnered with arborists who are at the front line in fighting the ‘Shot Hole Borer’ –  stand a chance to win the service of your local ‘Shot Hole Borer’ expert…

Competition period has been extended to the 31st May 2019.

Prizes offered:

2 x Arborist Consultation and Treatment in Gauteng

1 x Arborist Consultation and Control in Cape Town

1 x Arborist Consultation and Control in Garden Route

1 x Arborist Consultation in Durban

1 x PSHB Workshop

1 x PSHB War Chest

 

To enter the competition, download Tree Survey from your app store, and log two infested trees – each incident must have at least one close up photo showing the tiny holes in the bark:

Report 1 Shot Hole Borer infested private tree 

Report 1 Shot Hole Borer infested public tree (street, park, forest)

Reported infested public trees are forwarded to your local Municipality.

Download the competition pdf here

Competition Terms and Conditions and Terms of Use apply

 

 

 

We have published the SHOT HOLE BORER “WHAT TO DO” GUIDE that contains a practical guideline on the options that are available for private residents to treat their own trees. This guide does not endorse any specific products, nor does it represent an easy solution to the PSHB crisis South Africa is currently experiencing.

View the guide herePSHB.co.za/what-to-do/

 

PSHB TreeTreatment

TreeTreatment.co.za has launched –  this site has specialised PSHB  products and services to help you save your trees.

 

PSHB TreeInject.co.za

 

 

 

 

TreeInject.co.za has launched –  this site has information on the range of ArborJet  tree injection systems.

 

The polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB) was recently introduced into South Africa from East Asia. It is spreading rapidly within our urban forests and it is indiscriminately attacking our trees.  The PSHB Infested tree’s vascular system begins to fail, leaves start to turn brown, eventually the tree dies.

The PSHB is very difficult to control if we don’t know where it is. You can help..!!

PSHB Tree Survey
PSHB Tree Survey Mobile App is now available – click here for more info..

 

Apple iTunes App Store

Apple iTunes App Store

 

Private residents, community organisations, service providers and City Parks are joining hands to respond to the problem. Click here for recent events.

Infested and dead trees are a breeding ground for shot hole borer. Recent chemical tests indicate that one heavily infested tree contains over 100,000 beetles – these dead trees need to be removed and disposed of responsibly.

We need to fully notify government of the magnitude of this devastating invasion of this bug. Currently known area of established infestation are Johannesburg, Durban, Pietermaritzburg, George, Knysna  and Hartwater.

Boxelder, London Plane, English Oak, Chinese Maple are attacked particularly hard. View the list of trees known to be affected..

Affected trees develop wilted brown leaves on infested branches. The most obvious sign of infestation is that branches have brown stains around each hole where the borer has penetrated the tree.

It is important to note that the borer beetle itself does not kill the tree. The problem is the fungus (Fusarium euwallaceae) that grows in the tunnels made by the borer. Fusarium dieback occurs when your tree’s vascular system becomes blocked, leaves begin to thin on the ends of branches, they turn brown, the branch and eventually the tree will die.

 

2019-01-23 Verified Distribution of PSHB in South Africa
2019-01-23 Verified Distribution of PSHB in South Africa

 

The following info sheet was compiled by FABI to assist with identification:

PSHB - FABI - Information Sheet
PSHB – FABI – Information Sheet

 

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The problem and how do I save my trees

Once the borer beetle infests a tree it lives it’s life-cycle deep inside the wood beyond the reach of surface application of pesticide treatments.

Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer beetle
The Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer beetle is tiny

 

Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer beetle (Euwallacea Fornicatus) interbreeds and creates entire colonies within the tunnel network from a single entrance hole within the tree.

Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer beetle entrance hole
Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer beetle entrance hole in a London Plane tree.

 

The beetle and its larvae feed off fungus that grows inside the tunnels that it makes, insecticides are not particularly effective against it since it does not ingest the wood.

Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer - Fungus inside the tunnels
Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer – Fungus inside the tunnels

 

Information on the Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer beetle

 

Featured news and articles

 

How do I treat my tree using micro-injection of insecticides and fungicides.

PSHB Beetle

Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer Beetle (euwallacea fornicatus)

The polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB) beetle has been introduced into South Africa and it is spreading rapidly within the urban forests – millions of trees are projected to die.

View pictures of what the PSHB beetle looks like.

Affected trees develop wilted brown leaves on infested branches. The most obvious sign of infestation is branches have brown stains around each hole where the borer has penetrated the tree.

View pictures of what trees infested by the PSHB beetle look like.

Indigenous and exotic trees are attacked – the PSHB is generally indiscriminate since is does not eat wood, rather it feeds on fungus that it introduces into it’s host tree. The fungus (Fusarium euwallaceae) grows in the tunnels made by the borer – it is the fungus that kills the tree. Fusarium dieback occurs when your tree’s vascular system begins to fail, leaves begin to thin on the ends of branches, they turn brown, the branch and eventually the tree will die.

Boxelder, London Plane, English Oak, Chinese Maple are attacked particularly hard.

View the list of trees known to be affected.

View the photographic record of bark that has been removed to reveal the damage caused by the PSHB and the fusarium fungus in different tree genus.

The distribution of established PSHB infestation in South Africa are Johannesburg, Durban, Richards Bay, Pietermaritzburg, George, Knysna  and Hartwater.

Johannesburg with its dense urban forest has been hit part particularly hard.

FABI (Forestry & Agricultural Biotechnology Institute) within the University of Pretoria are extensively researching the PSHB here in South Africa. FABI has setup the following PSHB research portal.

PSHB – FABI Information sheet
PSHB – FABI Life stages of the beetle
PSHB – FABI How to sample
PSHB – FABI Symptoms
PSHB – FABI External symptom types
PSHB – FABI How to photograph for diagnosis

 

Featured News

The death of trees?

Indigenous and exotic trees in South Africa are dying by the thousands because of a tiny beetle that experts say is “impossible to eliminate”.

The beetle is only two millimetres in size and can be extremely difficult to spot.

The destructive polyphagous (able to feed on various kinds of foods) shot hole borer beetle has already infested thousands of trees and plants in the country and is expected to reach all corners of SA by 2022, killing off and damaging hundreds of species of trees. And while this happens, desperate calls to register chemicals to treat the trees have fallen on deaf ears.

View the article here

2019-05-06
Chelsea Pieterse
The Witness
news24.com

Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer (PHSB) Four-Year Forecast of Urban Tree Infestation in South Africa

Shot Hole Borer National Distribution Forecast

This paper uses current actual distribution of Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer (PHSB) within South Africa to provide a four-year forecast of how this invasive pest will spread in the urban environment.

View the article here

2019-05-04
Hilton Fryer
TreeSurvey.co.za

A Tiny Beetle Is Killing an Urban Forest and There’s No Solution

A black beetle the size of a sesame seed is killing South Africa’s trees, and no one knows how to stop it.

After arriving from Southeast Asia about four years ago, the polyphagous shot-hole borer has spread a thousand miles across South Africa, from the eastern city of Pietermaritzburg, where it was discovered in 2017, to indigenous forests on the west coast near Cape Town. An unwelcome side effect of globalization, the pest is believed to have arrived along with wood pellets on a ship.

View the article here

Pauline Bax
2019-04-03
Bloomberg.com

Destructive shot hole borer beetle sighted in Somerset West

“The City of Cape Town can confirm that the invasive polyphagous shot hole Borer beetle (PSHB) has been sighted in Somerset West. The City is in the process of appointing an experienced invasive plant removal team to remove the infected trees.”

“The PSBH infestation was discovered in Oldenland Road in Somerset West by passionate gardeners and environmentalists who noted that a London plane tree in their garden was ailing and exhibited signs of a PSHB beetle invasion.”

“The City’s Invasive Species Unit was contacted last month and a student with a Master’s of Science degree (MSc) from Stellenbosch University who is currently working on the PSHB beetle for his thesis, collected samples from the infested sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and London plane trees in Oldenland Road for laboratory analyses.”

“On 3 April 2019 after extensive DNA testing the results of the positive PSHB identification were released in a statement by academic experts from the Stellenbosch University’s Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology and the Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute at the University of Pretoria.”

Read the full article here

City of Cape Town, Media Office
2019-04-09
capetown.gov.za

Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer (PSHB) Workshops

5 Workshops have been scheduled around the country.

The last workshop will be held in Cape Town on Saturday 30th March

The Workshop covers the following topics:

PSHB – Habitat and life cycle
PSHB – Control and treatment
South African Law and Act 36

Sign up for the Cape Town PSHB Workshop here

View the Cape Town PSHB Workshop agenda and programme here

 

PSHB Workshop 2019-03-09 Joburg
PSHB Workshop 2019-03-09 Johannesburg
PSHB Workshop 2019-03-02 Ballito
PSHB Workshop 2019-03-02 Ballito, KZN
PSHB Workshop 2019-02-23 Knysna
PSHB Workshop 2019-02-23 Knysna
PSHB Workshop 2019-01-19 Joburg
PSHB Workshop 2019-01-19 Johannesburg

Johannesburg City Parks removes bug infested trees

Johannesburg City Parks has promised it won’t be removing trees prematurely amid the spread of an invasive beetle.
The small Asian insect, called the polyphagous shot hole borer, has been threatening the city’s urban forest for quite some time.
This week the city cut down about 40 highly-infested trees in Craighall Park in an attempt to fight the spread.

View the video here

eNCA
2019-03-22
YouTube.com

Borer infestation killing thousands of Joburg trees at alarming rate

The lack of data on the infestation of trees in the City of Joburg is leading to thousands of trees succumbing to the polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB).

This has been described as a potential disaster with the collapse of the city’s ecosystem collapse of up to 70% of the city’s 10.2 million trees die. Joburg City Parks and Zoo (JCPZ) said because the borer infestation was relatively newly discovered, there was very little data available.

View the article here

Anna Cox
2019-03-01
iol.co.za

City Parks commits to more engagement with community regarding shot-hole-borer

“EMMARENTIA – A heated public meeting hosted by JCPZ sought to inform and engage with community members regarding ways to deal with the shot-hole-borer infestation threatening Joburg’s green canopy.”

“Johannesburg City Parks and Zoo (JCPZ) has committed to providing leadership and more engagement with community members regarding the containment of the shot-hole-borer beetle following a heated public meeting hosted at the Johannesburg Botanical Gardens on 11 March.”

“City Parks hosted the meeting to educate various stakeholders about the beetle and how they were dealing with its containment.”

“General manager for ecosystems and open space management at City Parks, Senzo Nyembe described the beetle as a ‘tiny terror’ which has baffled scientists. The beetle called the polyphagous shot-hole-borer was identified by City Parks in 2018 as a pest which has infested and killed a number of street trees, threatening the Johannesburg urban forest.”

View the article here

Sarah Koning
2019-03-13
rosebankkillarneygazette.co.za

Tree borer activists slam city’s ‘inaction’

“The City of Johannesburg has been accused of “misleading” the public about the extent of the polyphagous shothole borer (PSHB) infestation, which is killing off some of the city’s trees.”

“While Johannesburg City Parks and Zoo last week said it was too early to classify the borer beetle outbreak as a disaster, the Borer Action Group (BAG) countered that this was another attempt “to minimise this environmental threat to excuse its inaction”

View the article here

2019-02-26
Sheree Bega
Saturday Star
iol.co.za

Carte Blanche – Shot Hole Borer Beetle

Excellent Carte Blanche coverage on the Shot Hole Borer, and a very useful infographic on their website. #CarteBlanche #PSHB

Shot Hole Borer Beetle: What You Need to Know – Carte Blanche – Shot Hole Borer Beetle

READ the article on the Carte Blanche Website that has practical information on what to do.

Contrary to belief, the beetle isn’t the direct cause of harm to the tree. Instead, the beetle releases a fungus called Fusarium euwallaceae.

A tiny alien invader is threatening South Africa’s trees. Called the Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer Beetle (or PSHB), this little critter is cause for huge concern. According to scientists, the PSHB has managed to wriggle its way into millions of trees across the world, and now it’s been spotted in local trees.

Carte Blanche – Evicting Alien Borer Beetles

WATCH the Carte Blanche video here

For South Africa, globalisation has come at a price – pests like the tiny polyphagous shot hole borer beetle are invading fruit trees, natural forests around the country, and one of the world’s largest urban forests – Johannesburg.

2018-11-04
Carte Blanche

TheConversation.com – The spread of shothole borer beetles in South Africa is proving tough to control

“A tiny tree-killing beetle with the awkwardly long name of Polyphagous Shothole Borer was detected in South Africa for the first time last year. It’s now attacking and inserting its deadly fungal ally, Fusarium euwallaceae, in a wider array of tree species across a much wider geographical area.”

“The beetle was initially discovered in a Botanical Garden on the country’s east coast. It has since been detected along the southern Cape coast line as well as in several inland urban areas. The number of tree species attacked in South Africa has also risen alarmingly. It currently stands at more than 80, 35 of which are native.”

Wilhelm de Beer – Associate Professor, University of Pretoria
Trudy Paap – Postdoctoral Fellow Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria
2018-11-02
TheConversation.com

Yale.edu – Beetle Mania: The Nasty Insect That Is Killing the Trees of Johannesburg

“South Africa’s largest city proudly notes that it has one of the world’s largest urban forests. But an invasive insect has been killing Johannesburg’s trees by the tens of thousands, and baffled experts are scrambling to find ways to stop it.”

Adam Welz
2018-10-16
Yale.edu

SABC News – Mobile App to report PSHB infestation

It’s a Friday and time for our weekly tech feature called Techbase. And tonight we’re speaking to the developer of the mobile app that allows people to report infestations of the tiny beetle that is killing South African trees. Earlier we spoke to an academic involved in efforts to deal with the Polyphagous shot hole borer. It bores holes into tree trunks and then spreads a fungus it carries which cuts off the system that transports water and nutrients. It is impossible to tell how many trees have already died or will. The app is called “Tree Survey”, and the developer is Hilton Fryer.

Francis Herd
2018-09-21
SABC News

ITWeb.co.za – New app helps tackle tree threats in SA

Sabahle Malinga
2018-09-28
ITWeb.co.za

DailyMaverick.co.za – Tree apocalypse looms in the face of policy paralysis

Tree apocalypse looms in the face of policy paralysis

Hilton Fryer
2018-09-11
DailyMaverick.co.za

LinkedIn.com – Can technology and data save South Africa’s trees?

“The polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB), a beetle that devastated green belts in California and avocado plantations in Israel, has been identified in South Africa. Containment is no longer possible, and institutions are now looking to control the infestation nationally. Policy and protocols need to be developed, however this takes time – spring has just arrived and the beetles are now flying.”

“Heuristic Guru, a data science consultancy, has partnered with Solution House, a software development company, to deploy the mobile app “Tree Survey” to report PSHB infestation to regional and national stakeholders. This incident management platform supports GIS reporting to enable PSHB infestation to be tracked within the country, which will allow municipalities to respond as the beetle reaches them.”

Hilton Fryer
2018-09-11
LinkedIn.com

SABC News – Beetle that kills SA trees: Prof. Wilhelm de Beer

A tiny beetle is killing trees in South Africa. And fear is rising that Johannesburg’s massive manmade forest could be decimated.
The little beetle has a long name – the polyphagous shot hole borer.
It bores holes into tree trunks and then spreads a fungus it carries which cuts off the system that transports water and nutrients.
And the trees die. It has already reportedly infested large parts of Johannesburg’s northern suburbs as well as the West Rand and Bedfordview. And the government in the Northern Cape is concerned about the destruction of pecan nut trees.

To discuss we’re joined by Associate Professor in Microbiology at the University of Pretoria, Wilhelm de Beer.

Francis Herd
2018-09-11
SABC Digital News

Al Jazeera – Beetle infestation threatens Johannesburg’s forests

“Johannesburg is home to one of the world’s largest urban forests, but it’s come under threat from a tiny beetle.
About 200 species of trees – many of them indigenous to South Africa – are afflicted with the pest and the fungus it carries. As scientists desperately look for a solution, many of the city’s trees are dying and experts are concerned the infestation could move from the forest to croplands next.”

Fahmida Miller
2018-09-01
Al Jazeera English

PSHB.co.za – Shot Hole Borer in South Africa

“Whiteboard video explaining the Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer (PSHB) crisis in South Africa. Visit www.PSHB.co.za for info. Thanks to the Quick2draw.co.uk team for creating the video.”

Hilton Fryer
2018-08-30
PSHB.co.za

MoneyWeb.co.za – Tree-borer beetle found in Northern Cape pecans

“The beetle is a threat to a range of crops, including avocado, macadamias, peaches and oranges and grapevines.”

Alastair Reed and Felix Njini, Bloomberg
2018-08-29
moneyweb.co.za

 

To view all South African PSHB articles view the news archive

Contact Us

Polyphagous-Shot-Hole-Borer.co.za

Heuristic Guru (Pty) Ltd

138 West Street, Sandton, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2031

+27-82-359-7518

 

You are welcome to make contact.